On 25 April 1945 the National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy (the Italian Resistance High Command) ordered a levée en masse against the Nazi troops occupying Northern Italy and their fascist allies.
With the same order, which was spread by radio, the Committee assumed all the governmental powers and authorized the execution on the spot of any fascist officer. Pursuant to this order, former dictator Benito Mussolini was famously executed three days later.
In 1946, the 25 of April was declared a national holiday by the Italian Government. The festivity is celebrated every year with public ceremonies, and occasionally some incidents involving far left or far right elements.